• Facial Asymmetry From Malunion Of Condylar Fracture

      Fracture malunion refers to the bony union of the fractured ends where the normal anatomic structure is not restored because of unsatisfactory reduction and position.1 Condylar fracture is the cause of 5% to 10% of all severe mandibular deficiency or asymmetry problems. The proportion of condylar fractures among all mandibular fractures is between 17.5% and 52%.2It has been claimed that favorable remodeling usually occurs if the fracture has been sustained before the growth is drawing to a close.  Condylar fracture is classified as intracapsular and extracapsular. Based on the level at which it occurs, it may be the condylar head (intracapsular), the condylar neck (extracapsular) and the subcondylar region fracture. The fracture is further classified as: undisplaced,... Submitted by:
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    Authors: Sapna S. Raut Dessai (1), Paresh K Desai (2) (1) Goa University (2) Apollo Victor Hospital - Goa
    Category: Neuroradiology

  • Abdomino-scrotal hydrocele

    Discussion: Abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH) in infancy and childhood is a rare entity resulting from the communication of a scrotal hydrocele with the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal. ASH is a very rare condition with 200 cases reported in literature. Although bilateral cases have been reported, most cases are unilateral. Embryologically, a part of peritoneum called processus vaginalis precedes the testis through the deep inguinal ring. This communication between the peritoneum and the scrotum should obliterate after birth, but occasionally remains patent. Fluid-filled cavities in both abdominal and scrotal compartments with communication through inguinal canal are diagnostic of ASH. Differential diagnosis of a cystic mass in abdomen in a male patient includes mesenteric... Submitted by: Norman Loberant
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    Authors: Simon Abu-shqara MS VI (1), Gabriela Ciceu MD (2), Norman Loberant MD (2,3) (1) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan, (2) Western Galilee Hospital, (3) Bar Ilan Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Safed, Israel
    Category: Pediatrics

  • Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum

    Lipomatous hypertrophy of interatrial septum (LHIS), first described by Prior in 1964, consists of excessive deposition of fatty tissue in the interatrial septum and represents about 0.6% of all benign cardiac tumors. Thought previously to be a relatively rare finding, LHIS is being increasingly recognized on echocardiography and other cardiac imaging, and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for any atrial mass. The prevalence of LHIS has been reported as 1% on autopsy studies; however, studies using echocardiography report a much higher prevalence of 2 to 8%. The etiology of LHIS etiology is unknown, but the prevalence is higher in individuals who are older (6th decade) and/or obese. A strong association has been reported between LHIS and both mediastinal and... Submitted by: Norman Loberant
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    Authors: Simon Abu-shqara (1), Norman Loberant (2) (1) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan, (2) Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya and Bar Ilan Galilee Faculty of Medicine, Safed, Israel
    Category: Cardiothoracic

  • Solitary Metastasis to Mandible From Renal Cell Carcinoma

      Metastatic tumor usually occurs due to hematogenous or lymphatogenous spread of clumps of tumor cells from a distant malignant tumor. It has been observed that bone metastasis occurs in structures that have proportionately larger red bone marrow [1]. Jaw bone involvement accounts for less than 1% of metastatic malignancies found elsewhere probably because these contain significantly less red marrow. Most affecting bones are the spine, pelvis, skull, ribs and humerus. Most of the red marrow in the jaws is found in the mandibular third molar region that is most often involved in metastatic spread. [2]Metastasis to the mandible makes up more than 70% of all malignant metastatic tumors in the oral cavity.[3] Primary carcinoma metastasizing most frequently to the jaws are from breast (... Submitted by:
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    Authors: (1)Raut Dessai Sapna S, (2)Desai Paresh K. (1)Goa University, (2) Apollo Victor Hospitals, Goa
    Category: Neuroradiology

  • Kallmann syndrome –classical MRI findings.

    Kallmann syndrome(KS) is a rare genetic disorder due to abnormal migration of olfactory axons and gonadotropin releasing hormone producing neurons .(1) In KS cells that normally express luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone fail to migrate from the medial olfactory placode along the terminalis nerves into the forebrain. In addition, failed neuronal migration from the lateral olfactory placode along the olfactory fila to the forebrain results in aplasia or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts.(2) The Kallman syndrome typically combines severe hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism with a complete absence of the sense of smell (anosmia).(3) Maestre de San Juan was probably the first to report, in 1856, the association of the absence of olfactory structures in the brain and the... Submitted by: gopinath TN
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    Authors: Gopinath TN (1),Shaji PC(2),Krishnakiran K(3),Jagdish J(4) Dr Shaji MRI and research centre, Calicut.India
    Category: Neuroradiology

  • MR Features of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

    Radiology and Pathophysiology Definitive diagnosis of the tumor was made by a neuropathologist after resection by a neurosurgeon. The tumor was identified as an atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), a rare pediatric CNS tumor most often seen in young children. Grossly and radiographically, ATRT tumors can be large and often include both cystic and solid areas, in association with hemorrhage. The cyst wall will often show enhancement. These tumors will occasionally demonstrate calcification on CT. This appearance led to many ATRTs being misdiagnosed as medulloblastoma/PNET, as the radiologic appearance of the two is essentially indistinguishable (Bikowska, 2011). In addition to ATRT, the differential diagnosis includes PNET/medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma. While in the past... Submitted by: Brendan McCleary
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    Authors: Brendan McCleary (1), Mahlon Johnson (2) (1) University of Rochester School of Medicine (2) University of Rochester Medical Center
    Category: Neuroradiology

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    Classification: Made according to the dominant site of inter-fetal body part connection. The union can be (A)Ventral union: twins united along the ventral aspect(3) 1.Thoracopagus (thorax, 30-40%), 2..omphalopagus (abdomen, 25-30%), 3.Thoracomphalopagus 4.Pygopagus (sacrum, 10-20%) 5.Ischiopagus (pelvis 6-20%) 6.Craniopagus (head, 2-16%). The first three type form the majority of caeses. Thoracopagus: united face-to-face from the upper thorax down to the umbilicus.The heart is also conjoined or shared in majority. Four arms, four legs, two pelvises. Omphalopagus: joined face-to-face primarily in the area of the umbilicus, and sometimes involving the lower thorax, but always preserving two distinct hearts. There is not even a cardiac vessel in common. Two pelvis, four arms and...
    Authors: Dr.Neeraj Lalwani MBBS,DMRD,MD N.Delhi,India
    Category: Ultrasound

  • Fluorosis

    Skeletal fluorosis is bone disease caused by excessive consumption of fluoride. In India it is due to fluoride laden water derived from bore wells dug deep into the earth(Chronic poisoning).It may also occur in aluminum smeltring industries. It is associated with enthesopathies, osteophytosis, hyperostosis (Osteoclastic response to fluorine rather than to fluorine deposition) and calcification of paraspinal, pelvic ligaments and interosseous membrane. It is often associated with crippling stiffness & pain and may be misdiagnosed as rheumatoid or osteoarthritis.Radiologically bone diseases which fluorosis may be misdiagnosed as ankylosing spondylitis; renal osteodystrophy; osteopetrosis; and Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH).
    Authors: Dr.Neeraj Lalwani MBBS,DMRD,MD N.Delhi,India
  • Acquired Tracheo-Esophageal Fistula

    Incidence of malignant TEFs was reported at 4.5% for primary malignant esophageal tumors. This devastating complication of CA esophagus results in contamination of the respiratory tract, leading to pulmonary infections and death from sepsis within a few weeks of development.TE fistulas are often acquired after radiation therapy in mediastinal tumors.The anatomic site of a TEF is the trachea in more than 50% of cases; approximately 40% occur in the left and right main stem bronchi, and a smaller number (6%) occur in lung parenchyma. Regardless of therapy the overall prognosis of malignant esophagorespiratory fistula is dismal.80% of such patients die within three months.
    Authors: Dr.Neeraj Lalwani MBBS,DMRD,MD N.Delhi,India
    Category: GI Radiology

  • Omphalocele

    Abdominal wall defects in fetus consists:   Gastroschisis: Location Paraumblical (often Rt), Full thickness abdominal wall defect, Small size (2-4cm), Free floating bowel loops in amniotic fluid, No envelope membrane Omphalocele: Infraumblical insertion site, Containing small bowel or solid viscera (Often liver), Limiting membrane covering the defect, size variable (2-10cm) Limb Body wall complex: Large ventral wall defect (Usually Lt) of the abdomen and thorax, Craniofacial abnormality, Marked scoliosis and/or spinal dysraphism, Limb defect, Short/absent umbilical cord, Amniotic bands Bladder & cloacal extrophy: Infraumblical anterior wall defect with irregular anterior wall mass, Large, Absent bladder, Malformed genitalia, neural tube defect +/-...
    Authors: Dr.Neeraj Lalwani MBBS,DMRD,MD N.Delhi,India
    Category: Ultrasound